Etiology of Bronchitis

Bronchitis which is the infection of bronchi, branches of trachea or windpipe. The infection leads to the inflammation of bronchi that result into hyper secretion of mucus or cough. This causes problematic breathing activity, wheezing, cough, headache, and so on. The cause of infection may depend on the age or maturity of the person and types of agents. So based on the age of the patient and type of agent we will be discussing the etiology of Bronchitis. As the bronchitis is of two types it can also be found that both of them are different in etiology of Bronchitis as well and we are going to take a look at both of the aspects here.

Based on the maturity or age of the patient we will find following etiology of Bronchitis. As the disease is most common according to the age so we need to categorize it into 3 sections and then discuss it separately. These three categories need a complete walkthrough.

The three categories are

  1. Age under one year
  2. Age one to 10 years
  3. Age over 10 years

Infants below the age of one year get infected with the disease due to RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus), Para influenza, Corona virus, etc. RSV and Corona virus are more common during winter to spring while para-influenza is quite common during fall. Age one to 10 years means infection with Para influenza, enterovirus, RSV and Rhinovirus. Again enterovirus and rhinovirus are common during fall. Peoples with age over 10 years are more prone to get infection of bronchitis through Influenza virus, RSV and Adenovirus. By studying the agents for infection to a particular age we can make better prevention against the disease. This is where the patient needs be aware of. Whatever the category the patient falls in, he or she must be observed for the complete signs and symptoms so that the proper treatment could be accorded.

As we take a look at what the causes of Bronchitis are, we come to meet some other researches as well. The disease of bronchitis is not only infected due to virus. There are certain more agents that cause bronchitis and the same have different situations with different signs and symptoms. We need to get prevented from all of these agents. The agent can be some microbe or due to environmental irritants. Based in these facts, the etiology of Bronchitis can be studied more minutely by categories them into five categories according to the agent for infection. The five categories can be viral cause, bacterial cause, Atypical Bacterial cause, yeast or fungi and Environmental irritants.

It has been found that virus is involved majorly about 90% for causing bronchitis in humans. Viruses that are responsible for infections are Adenovirus, Coronavirus, Influenza, Metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza virus, RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Rhinovirus, and so on. Viral infections are more dangerous as viruses are resistant to antibiotics and are not easily treated. Bacterial that are responsible for about 5% cause for bronchitis in human are easily treated because bacteria are sensitive to antibiotics. The bacteria causing infections are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilusinfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertusis and so on. Some other atypical bacteria responsible for bronchitis are Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella, etc. Beyond bacteria and virus there are certain other microbes that are responsible for bronchitis in humans. These are yeast or fungi, namely, Bastomyces dermatitidis, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and so on. These microbes are responsible for acute bronchitis however environmental irritants are responsible for chronic bronchitis. Environmental irritants include tobacco smoke, air pollution, ammonia, marijuana and so on.

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